From the Birmingham jail, where he was imprisoned as a participant in Martin Luther King, Jr., wrote in longhand the letter which follows. “Letter from Birmingham Jail”. 16 April My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement. From the Birmingham jail, where he was imprisoned as a participant in nonviolent Martin Luther King, Jr., wrote in longhand the letter which follows. It was his.
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Martin Luther King. Letter from Birmingham Jail (). [Abridged]. April 16, . My Dear Fellow Clergymen,. While confined here in the Birmingham City Jail. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter From Birmingham Jail. 1 19 Martin Luther King ftr. Read MLK's Letter from Birmingham Jail (PDF). While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my. 2. present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Despite writing from a prison cell, however, King never considers his actions criminal, and uses his letter to argue that while the protests were illegal, they served a greater sense of justice.
He was protesting laws that he considered fundamentally unjust for a number of reasons; this form of civil disobedience is both necessary and patriotic. King notes that it is as important to disobey unjust laws as it is to obey just ones; as such, he presents various arguments to illustrate the injustice of the segregation laws in the South.
King explains that laws are manmade but justice is divine, and for a law to truly be considered just, it cannot conflict with moral law. Segregation laws are therefore unjust, as they do not correspond to the law of God.
If the law does not apply equally to white and black citizens, it is an unjust law and should not exist. King also notes that he and other blacks were not able to take part in the formation of these laws—they do not even have the opportunity to vote for their own leaders and lawmakers—and therefore the laws are not created within a truly democratic system.
Complacency vs. He shows the two opposing forces in his community, which are a force of complacency and a force of hatred and violence.
The first comes as "a result of long years of oppression," that dehumanizes African Americans and compels them to accept just surviving, even as a marginalized and oppressed group. The complacency can also stem from some members of the minority group as a result of their economic or political interest that flourish in the context of segregation.
King shows anxiety over the increase in this attitude as a result of the despair among black people of achieving any progress through the peaceful methods.
For King, seeking violence as a way for solution means that African- American started to have no faith either in America or in Christianity. Following the military coup in , the Christians found themselves caught in an entirely new set of circumstances.
The government banned the political parties, confiscated the properties of many wealthy Christians and Muslims, and arrested, even killed, many of its opponents. The Christians, as well as many Muslims, withdrew from the political arena.
Since that time, many Christians from all denominations have been isolating, and seeking protection inside the figurative "walls of the church. Recently, Egypt witnessed some degree of democratic progress. However, the fears and isolation of Christians increased as a result of the rise of political Islam, represented in the Muslim Brotherhood, that seeks to Islamize the whole Egyptian society and threatens the Christian existence in Egypt. However, we started to notice a few violent reactions from Christians.
On November 24, , clashes broke out between more than Christians and Egyptian security forces in protest against the freeze of building a church in Cairo. At least one Christian was killed, thirty people were injured in the clashes, and 93 were arrested. COM, Moreover, Copts started recently to express their losing of faith in Egypt as a secular country, which was revealed clearly in the call of many Copts for the intervention of the United States to protect the oppressed Christians in Egypt.
That solution comes in Kings Words; "there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. King is still reminding us; Through nonviolent resistance we shall be able to oppose the unjust system and at the same time love the perpetrators of the system. We must work passionately and unrelentingly for full stature as citizens, but may it never be said, my friends, that to gain it we used the inferior methods of falsehood, hate, and violence.
There are certain aspects of convergence between the African American situation in the s and the Christian Egyptian situation in the present time, that can allow Egyptian Christians, as a minority group, to benefit form the experience of African Americans in the Civil Rights period.
I explored these themes and showed how Egyptian Christians can read 50 In a documentary movie by BBC Arabic, a woman from Upper Egypt shocked the Egyptian society by calling for the American intervention in Egypt to protect the Christians. This paper showed that King's deep insights and wisdom still talk to us in Egypt, and have a great potential to support and help Egyptian Christians and all minority groups that seek freedom, justice, and equality through nonviolent resistance.
Finally, I want to remind Egyptian Christian readers that we, as Christian activists, have final goal that is not only justice, but rather achieving the beloved community, in which all Egyptians live in love, equality, and dignity regardless of their religion, race, or gender. We need to work hard with all Egyptian intellectuals and activists for achieving peace, freedom, justice, and prosperity for all Egyptians.
Again, I identify with King in his call that "the end is, after all, redemption, reconciliation, a better social order, the beloved community. The Requirements of Revival, Renewal and Modernity. Beirut Dar El-Tali'a, Alvah, Donna. Azz-Al-Arab, Khaled. Bahgat, Mostafa. Bass, SJ.
Beetz, Kirk H. Bengio, O, and G Ben-Dor. Cozzens, Lisa. Garrow, DJ.
Hanna, Melad. Cairo: Madboli, Jordan, TL. The U. King, ML. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, Strength to Love: Fortress Pr.
Marshall, PA. Michael, Maggie.
Mitri, Tarek. Morozov, Evgeny. Parolin, GP. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers.
I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate.
You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist. I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community.
The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence.
Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place.
The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history.