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But Erens beautifully evokes its insistent rhythms and protective deliriums.
There is no room around her, no hospital. She is untethered, a blurry presence smudged across a dense atmosphere. Pregnant women are often assured this knowledge resides in the body itself. Lore seems more prepared than most. We are reminded that every birth is an event without script, the ultimate suspense story. Erens registers this without preaching and without judgment, creating one of the most realistic and harrowing portrayals of birth you are likely to encounter in fiction. She has also written an indelible portrait of two women coming to terms with the desire, fear, crushing losses and fragile joys that have carved their lives, and who know what it means to fight every hour, every minute, to take another breath.
A version of this article appears in print on , on Page 35 of the Sunday Book Review with the headline: What to Expect. Domestic and international on immediate consumption and hedonic pleasure, Chinese e-shoppers consummated these sales, and prone to spontaneous trust and superficial which surpassed post-Thanksgiving U.
Confucian influence on download and consump- Inspired in the early s by academic fellows tion behavior. Face-to-face and negotiation-led Background personal selling strategies likely will remain the norm until China's national infrastructure and Chinese e-commerce institutional mechanisms develop further Haley ; Martinsons ; Ng ; Sharma In , China's path to e-commerce was and interpersonal relationships no longer obscured.
With few e-commerce platforms and dominate commerce. At development is grounded largely in a deeply that rate, China soon will surpass the U. By , China's e-sales likely will exceed and East Asian schools, businesses, and comibined e-sales for the U. As a Dubinsky ; Jelinek ; Reynolds and result, their research tends to focus on the Simintiras ; Wieseke, Alavi, and Habel consumer side of the consumer-producer dyad.
Traditional Confucian values provide key insights into Chinese business-negotiation styles In relating e-trust to Chinese e-shopping behavior, Chuah, Hoffmann, and Larner ; Fang ; researchers found a lack of e-trust hinders e- Graham and Lam ; Ma et al.
Traditionally, sales-related to lower-hierarchy members and reverence is negotiations in China are conducted face-to-face offered from lower- to higher-hierarchy members because institutional deficiencies encourage Bond and Hwang ; Ho Well-ordered interpersonal ; Simmons and Munch Business relationships imply a stable long-term orientation scholars have explored these traditional —pragmatic, thrifty, and forward-looking—in practices, which are grounded in personal China Emery and Tian In Chinese culture, social harmony Confucianism Doctrines implies collectivism, and under Confucianism a collectivist society promotes cooperative efforts Confucianism—the paramount guiding and communal interests abetted by personal self- philosophy in Chinese life and cultural practice sacrifice, self-restraint, and downplayed self- Hofstede and Bond ; Huang, Ba, and Lu importance Lin and Huang The Figure summarizes four of its manifests as people treating one another with major philosophical constituents i.
Xin integrity stresses mutual trust the outer squared loop. Its Five Constants or or faithfulness , accountability, and reliability. Wuchang—Ren humaneness , Yi righteous- Xin fosters harmonious societal outcome as ness , Li ritual , Zhi wisdom , and Xin integrity mutual trust diminishes uncertainty, promotes —are the highest virtues for right-being and right- consensus, and nourishes interpersonal relation- doing by people and society.
Jian frugality encourages conservatism in Five Bonds or Five Relationships Wulun —ruler resource usage and allocation, which should be to ruled or subordinate , father to son, husband dictated by need and utility rather than desire and to wife, elder brother to younger brother, and pleasure.
In traditional Chinese economies, fru- friend to friend—interpersonal relationships are gal people are viewed favorably and, as a whole, expected and regimented while social harmony is a society with savings and prudence is believed ensured Bell ; Chen, Chen, and Huang to create communal prosperity Dawson Jian, interpreted as frugality or thrift, relates to the Five Bonds Analytical Method through long-run orientation Yoon To further explore traditional personal selling Place Figure about here strategies in China and the contrary mindset and consumption behavior of Chinese e-shoppers, The Five Bonds should be maintained for inter- we conducted a qualitative review of selected personal relationships in a hierarchical society.
To develop the e. Although mindset.
Duplicate messages behaviors differ between traditional Chinese were excluded to eliminate redundancy. These shoppers and Chinese e-shoppers e.
As summarized in Table. Antenarrative is defined by Boje as the process Social harmony is the utmost Confucian goal. Yet, Chinese e- tactics prevail in townships and villages Zhang shoppers accepted this e-tailing practice, as their Topic Studio Rather, it is wide selection, low prices, ; Topic Studio ; an online series of simple transaction procedures, and convenience Youku-produced street interviews.
For example, Xiu. Its employees believe expand- and long-term oriented Martinsons Although Day predispose Chinese e-shoppers to conduct Alibaba's escort account system Alipay makes intensive online product research.
Chinese e-shoppers are the dilemma of making credit payments after their tradition-inverting e. Jian frugality stresses the Chinese tradition of This practice has become so commonplace that creating goods for practical use.
Traditional Chinese shoppers tend to Oriental Broadcast Room However, increasingly popular e- spree because they find downloading itself is pleasur- commerce in China does not support such efforts. These e-shoppers, also known as implications for both sales research and practice. As this recom- shopping spree.
Chinese e-shoppers represent huge opportun- ities to Chinese and other e-tailers because a Limitations and Future Research relation-based sales approach no longer pertains in cyberspace. Like most e-shoppers, Chinese e- The current research adopts a qualitative shoppers decide more pragmatically, with the approach to uncover major cultural transform- goal of fulfilling personally driven demand.
There is no formal testing of hypotheses shoppers reflects a hedonistic philosophy. Due to their growing aspects of Confucian values as they pertain to affluence and affordability, traditional Chinese Chinese e-commerce practices. Specifically, shoppers and Chinese e-shoppers have become much evidence indicates the fading of Confucian more self-indulgent and self-interested, as influence, which provokes theoretical challenges reflected by shopping increasingly as a personal to the existing paradigm of relationship-based e- award Atsmom et al.
Consistent with commerce. Researchers could conduct Despite profound Confucian influence, traditional a series of semi-structured interviews, incorpor- Chinese retailers might re-evaluate Chinese ating findings from this research, to create shoppers' emotional intelligence and adapt sales structured questionnaires meant for consumers. To cope with Confucian Researchers also could examine differences mindsets in e-commerce, Chinese retailers among Chinese downloader-seller relationships, in should rely more on e-platforms to promote online and offline contexts, to advance 8 understanding of how these difference pertain to conservative spending beliefs manifested as the marketing outcomes.
Although there are country once considered one of the least many to be addressed, the major practical promising for e-commerce growth? Have beliefs implications are threefold.
Relative to Westerners, Chinese perceptions and perform better? Although much remains entrenched in Chinese business practices, Confucian teachings are 2 Marketing managers cannot ignore the new becoming less prominent in e-commerce.
As China remains a long-term nurturing of relationships before Confucian culture in many ways, collectivistic finalizing business deals, especially in an dogmas still dominant in many social environment where downloaders and sellers have little contexts.
Despite the overall cultural thread prior interaction and there are few ways to ensure remaining unchanged in commercial affairs, successful product delivery. Hence, China faced difficulties in establishing trust marketing efforts should align with between online downloaders and sellers.
Ke, C. Alibaba Group News Entries 1. CNBC 2.